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DIGITAL MOVIE CAMERA BASICS

Movie cameras have camera lens, imager, image processing and video output as their major components.

arriflex d 21 digital camera

Camera Lens:digital camera lens

  Lenses are essential part of camera to adjust the output effects, or to provide special effects.

Types of lens:

Before going into the digital basics, lets see what are the major types of lens using in movie cameras

Macro or Close up lens: The lens that produces an image on the focal plane, used to image close-up very small subjects.

Zoom: A zoom lens helps to change the focal length within a shot or quickly between setups for shots. In professional cinematography, prime lens are often used due to the quality of the image when compared with Zoom lens.

Perspective Control Lens: These lens produces the feel of camera movement, which are often called as Shift lenses and tilt/shift lenses.

Swivel lenses : These lens rotate while attached to a camera body to give unique perspectives and camera angles.

Infrared lens : These lens produces special effects to some scenes by filtering colors.

Aerial Lens: These lens are used to shoot scenes well above the ground level. 

Imagers in Digital movie camera: 

The imager in a digital movie camera have a single or three semiconductor chips with light-sensitive cells (photocells). It transfers incident light into electric charge, and to create a color image, the incident light is split into its color components such as red, green, and blue during capture.

Image processing in Digital Camera:

The digital image processing chips will convert the raw data from the image sensor into a color-corrected image in a standard image file format.

Major techniques used in digital image processing include, pixelisation, linear filtering, principal components analysis, independent component analysis, hidden Markov models, anisotropic diffusion, partial differential equations, self-organizing maps, neural networks and wavelets.

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